Три правила выдающихся компаний

По мотивам книги Майкла Рейнора  «Три правила выдающихся компаний» («The Three Rules: How Exceptional Companies Think»). Майкл Рейнор (Michael E. Raynor) — директор Deloitte Services LP. Соавтор Мумтаз Ахмед (Mumtaz Ahmed) — партнер Deloitte Consulting LLP и директор по стратегии Deloitte LLP. 

Вы работаете в компании, которая только начинает свое восхождение к Олимпу? Или Вы сами относите себя к начинающим акулам менеджмента? В любом случае, Вы нуждаетесь в четких правилах для того, чтобы вести свою фирму к заветной цели.

Вы можете найти на полках огромное количество книг об истории выдающихся компаний — Apple, Microsoft, Zappos, Starbucks, Coca-Cola — перечислять можно долго. Авторы этих книг умалчивают, а возможно просто недооценивают, что этим компаниям  очень повезло, они оказались в нужном месте в нужное время. Но если у Вас нет желания становиться гигантом индустрии и топовой транснациональной корпорацией, то эти книги вам почти никак не помогут.  Как выделить компании, опыт которых будет Вам полезен и как обобщить этот опыт в форме нескольких важных пунктов? 

Авторы отобрали из тысяч компаний несколько сотен фирм, которые работали хорошо в течение долгого времени — достаточно долгого, чтобы можно было отнести их к разряду выдающихся. Но ценность книги не только в этом —  эффективность компаний-лидеров определялась 3 правилами:

1. «Лучше» важнее, чем «дешевле»

У каждого товара или услуги есть две стоимости: денежная и неденежная. Для покупателя денежная стоимость равна цене, уплаченной продавцу. Неденежная же стоимость включает в себя все остальные свойства товара, которые ценит покупатель: долговечность, функциональность, качество, удобство покупки, уровень сопутствующего сервиса, легкость использования, бренд и т. д.

Создание товара или услуги с высокой неденежной ценностью для потребителя, как правило, предполагает более высокую себестоимость и цену. При этом во многих случаях наблюдалась картина, когда на более дорогой товар спрос был выше, чем на дешевый аналог конкурента, что, казалось бы, противоречит классическому закону спроса и предложения. На самом деле противоречия нет — закон был выведен для стандартизованных, условно одинаковых товаров, а в реальной жизни товар почти всегда отличается.

  • почти все лидеры были сосредоточены на создании неденежной стоимости, отличающей их от конкурентов.
  • стратегии сфокусированности или диверсификации хорошо играли свою роль только тогда, когда они способствовали созданию такого преимущества.
  • когда компании отступали от своей стратегии создания неденежного преимущества и начинали фокусироваться на выигрыше по цене, уровень их прибыльности падал.
  • Стайеры примерно с одинаковой вероятностью конкурировали по денежной и неденежной стоимости, иногда мечась между ними, а большинство Середнячков выбирали ценовую конкуренцию.
  • чтобы понять, какие именно преимущества имеются у товара или услуги компании, необходимо сравнивать их с прямыми субститутами, а не со всем рынком.
  • сегмент рынка не важен, создание неденежной стоимости важно и в бюджетном сегменте
  • неденежная стоимость создается для конкретной целевой группы потребителей, часто эта стратегия предполагает уступки по одним параметрам, чтобы достигнуть выдающегося качества по другим
  • создание и удержание неденежной стоимости товара — процесс не статичный, преимущество нужно постоянно развивать и удерживать
  • более эффективный подход (даже в кризисной ситуации) — заново создавать неденежную стоимость для своих клиентов, нежели пытаться остаться прибыльным, снижая цены.

2. Доходы важнее расходов

Cуществует всего три пути увеличить рентабельность активов компании: увеличить доходы, уменьшить расходы или сократить используемые активы. Данное исследование показало, что компании, сфокусировавшие свою стратегию на увеличении доходов в данной формуле, систематически показывают лучшие результаты, чем те, кто в основном занимался снижением себестоимости или сокращением активов.

  • важно как фирма управляет взаимозависимостью этих компонентов, балансируя между неизбежными уступками
  • Лидеры  чаще, чем Стайеры, имеют преимущество в операционной прибыли, но также не реже Стайеров проигрывают в «других расходах».
  • (Доходы = Цена Х Количество проданного товара) Лидеры в основном достигали роста доходов за счет более высокой цены, а не путем увеличения количества проданных товаров или услуг
  • более того, они были готовы инвестировать в улучшение товара для увеличения доходов, даже если себестоимость их товаров в итоге превышала себестоимость конкурентов-аналогов.

Интересный пример этой стратегии — сеть продуктово-хозяйственных дискаунтеров Family Dollar. Кажется удивительным, что компания может быть успешной в этой отрасли, выставляя более высокие цены, чем конкуренты, ведь ее целевая аудитория — семьи с низким достатком, чувствительные к цене на повседневные продукты питания. Однако в Family Dollar подметили, что, хотя в огромных гипермаркетах за городом цены ниже, туда нужно ехать, тратя деньги на бензин. А еще товары там продаются в огромных упаковках. Следовательно, когда посреди недели требуется какой-то конкретный товар, потребитель предпочтет заскочить в магазин у дома и купить маленькую упаковку, пусть и за чуть большие деньги. Family Dollar выстроили свое неденежное преимущество на удобном расположении магазинов, выборе товаров и оптимальном размере упаковок. Это позволило им долгое время успешно держать цены на уровне выше дискаунтеров-конкурентов.

Только две компании-Звезды из нашей выборки — Merck и Wrigley — наращивали доходы в основном за счет роста объема продаж, а не премиальных цен. Однако возможность наращивания доходов у них определялась существенными неценовыми конкурентными преимуществами — в частности, развитой сетью торговых представительств и сильным брендом.

3. Только первые два правила имеют значение

Третье правило в предложенной формулировке может показаться лишним. Но оно подчеркивает, что два выведенных правила — «”Лучше” важнее, чем “дешевле”» и «Доходы важнее расходов» — необходимы и достаточны в качестве ориентиров для принятия управленческих решений. По крайней мере, исследователям не удалось обнаружить ни одного другого критерия, статистически существенно влияющего на долгосрочную прибыльность компании.

Это — основополагающие идеи, оттолкнувшись от которых компании с годами выходили на высочайший уровень. Как до них додумались руководители этих организаций? Этого мы не знаем — как не знаем и того, насколько вообще осознанно воплощали их первые лица компаний.





10 366 thoughts on “Три правила выдающихся компаний

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